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Latest BMI-related Articles and Publications
- A stable pattern of EEG spectral coherence
distinguishes children with autism from neuro-typical
controls - a large case control study (PDF). 2012.
AUTHORS: Frank H. Duffy1* and Heidelise Als2
1 Department of Neurology, Children’s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School,
300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA
2 Department of Psychiatry(Psychology), Children’s Hospital Boston and Harvard
Medical School, 320 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA
* Corresponding author
The autism rate has recently increased to 1 in 100 children. Genetic studies
demonstrate poorly understood complexity. Environmental factors apparently also play a
role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrate increased brain sizes and
altered connectivity. Electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence studies confirm
connectivity changes. However, genetic-, MRI- and/or EEG-based diagnostic tests are
not yet available. The varied study results likely reflect methodological and population
differences, small samples and, for EEG, lack of attention to group-specific artifact.
Of the 1,304 subjects who participated in this study, with ages ranging from 1 to
18 years old and assessed with comparable EEG studies, 463 children were diagnosed
with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); 571 children were neuro-typical controls (C).
After artifact management, principal components analysis (PCA) identified EEG spectral
coherence factors with corresponding loading patterns. The 2- to 12-year-old subsample
consisted of 430 ASD- and 554 C-group subjects (n = 984). Discriminant function
analysis (DFA) determined the spectral coherence factors’ discrimination success for the
two groups. Loading patterns on the DFA-selected coherence factors described ASDspecific
coherence differences when compared to controls.
Total sample PCA of coherence data identified 40 factors which explained 50.8%
of the total population variance. For the 2- to 12-year-olds, the 40 factors showed highly
significant group differences (P <0.0001). Ten randomly generated split half replications
demonstrated high-average classification success (C, 88.5%; ASD, 86.0%). Still higher
success was obtained in the more restricted age sub-samples using the jackknifing
technique: 2- to 4-year-olds (C, 90.6%; ASD, 98.1%); 4- to 6-year-olds (C, 90.9%; ASD
99.1%); and 6- to 12-year-olds (C, 98.7%; ASD, 93.9%). Coherence loadings
demonstrated reduced short-distance and reduced, as well as increased, long-distance
coherences for the ASD-groups, when compared to the controls. Average spectral loading
per factor was wide (10.1 Hz).
Classification success suggests a stable coherence loading pattern that
differentiates ASD- from C-group subjects. This might constitute an EEG coherencebased
phenotype of childhood autism. The predominantly reduced short-distancecoherences
may indicate poor local network function. The increased long-distancecoherences
may represent compensatory processes or reduced neural pruning. The wide
average spectral range of factor loadings may suggest over-damped neural networks.
Autism spectrum disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, PDD, EEG coherence,
principal components analysis, PCA, coherence factors, discriminant analysis}
- Namenda/Glutamate (PDF).
ABSTRACT: Two separate articles discussing use of Namenda for clinical purposes.
- The Intense World Theory - a unifying theory of the neurobiology of autism. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 2010.
AUTHORS: Kamila Markram* and Henry Markram
Laboratory of Neural Microcircuits, Brain Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
ABSTRACT: Autism covers a wide spectrum of disorders for which there are many views, hypotheses
and theories. Here we propose a unifying theory of autism, the Intense World Theory. The
proposed neuropathology is hyper-functioning of local neural microcircuits, best characterized
by hyper-reactivity and hyper-plasticity... The autistic is proposed to become trapped in a limited, but
highly secure internal world with minimal extremes and surprises. We present the key studies
that support this theory of autism, show how this theory can better explain past findings, and
how it could resolve apparently conflicting data and interpretations. The theory also makes
further predictions from the molecular to the behavioral levels, provides a treatment strategy
and presents its own falsifying hypothesis.
- Improved mitochondrial function in brain aging and Alzheimer disease – the new mechanism of action of the old metabolic enhancer piracetam. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 2010.
AUTHORS: Kristina Leuner1, Christopher Kurz1, Giorgio Guidetti2, Jean-Marc Orgogozo3 and Walter E. Müller1*
1 Department of Pharmacology, Biocenter, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany
2 Audiological and Vestibular Center of Azienda AUSL of Modena, Modena, Italy
3 Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Bordeaux, France
Piracetam, the prototype of the so-called nootropic drugs’ is used since many years in different countries to treat cognitive impairment in aging and dementia. Findings that piracetam enhances fluidity of brain mitochondrial membranes led to the hypothesis that piracetam might improve mitochondrial function, e.g., might enhance ATP synthesis. This assumption has recently been supported by a number of observations showing enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced ATP production, and reduced sensitivity for apoptosis in a variety of cell and animal models for aging and Alzheimer disease. As a specific consequence, substantial evidence for elevated neuronal plasticity as a specific effect of piracetam has emerged. Taken together, this new findings can explain many of the therapeutic effects of piracetam on cognition in aging and dementia as well as different situations of brain dysfunctions.
- Cognitive effects of one season of head impacts in a cohort of collegiate contact sport athletes . Neurology May 29, 2012 78:1777-1784; published ahead of print May 16, 2012
Objective: To determine whether exposure to repetitive head impacts over a single season negatively
affects cognitive performance in collegiate contact sport athletes.
Methods: This is a prospective cohort study at 3 Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association
athletic programs. Participants were 214 Division I college varsity football and ice hockey players
who wore instrumented helmets that recorded the acceleration-time history of the head following
impact, and 45 noncontact sport athletes. All athletes were assessed prior to and shortly after
the season with a cognitive screening battery (ImPACT) and a subgroup of athletes also were
assessed with 7 measures from a neuropsychological test battery.
Results: Few cognitive differences were found between the athlete groups at the preseason or
postseason assessments. However, a higher percentage of the contact sport athletes performed
more poorly than predicted postseason on a measure of new learning (California Verbal Learning
Test) compared to the noncontact athletes (24% vs 3.6%; p < 0.006). On 2 postseason cognitive
measures (ImPACT Reaction Time and Trails 4/B), poorer performance was significantly associated
with higher scores on several head impact exposure metrics.
Conclusion: Repetitive head impacts over the course of a single season may negatively impact
learning in some collegiate athletes. Further work is needed to assess whether such effects are
short term or persistent. Neurology(R)
- Histamine and motivation. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 2012.
Fernando Torrealba1,2*, Maria E. Riveros1,2, Marco Contreras1,2 and Jose L. Valdes3
1Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Departamento de Fisiología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
2Millenium Nucleus in stress and addiction, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
3Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Fisiología y Biofísica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Brain histamine may affect a variety of different behavioral and physiological functions; however, its role in promoting wakefulness has overshadowed its other important functions. Here, we review evidence indicating that brain histamine plays a central role in motivation and emphasize its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the inputs that control histaminergic neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus, which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles, and food anticipatory responses. Moreover, we review evidence supporting the dysfunction of histaminergic neurons and the cortical input of histamine in regulating specific forms of decreased motivation (apathy). In addition, we discuss the relationship between the histamine system and drug addiction in the context of motivation.
Keywords: addiction, apathy, appetite, histamine, infralimbic cortex, motivation, tuberomamillary nucleus
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