We offer an evidence-based approach composed of:
Cognitive Neurology is a discipline of neurology
that deals with the relationship between the brain structure, the brain
electrical activity, and brain function. Brain function is expressed
by judgment, memory, language, reading, spatial orientation, motor performance,
and sensory integration. In addition, behavior is one of the manifestations
of brain function. These include: mood, socialization, attention, and
A neurological examination may include two elements, an assessment of
neurological functioning, and an examination of soft (subtle)
neurological signs if a learning disability is suspected. An assessment
will include a family and medical history, as well as physical examination
of specific neurological functions. In some cases, a neurological examination
may also include more specialized procedures such as an EEG to measure
electrical activity in the brain, visual evoked response tests assess
how well information travels from the eyes to the occipital lobes (visual
cortex), MRI scans, or other brain-imaging techniques.
Digital EEG & Evoked Potentials
Our clinic in San Francisco, California is currently the primary location in the world where the
DEEP is available for use in clinical applications.
Our specialized EEG captures more information than the standard EEG and allows
the neurologist to thoroughly examine the subtleties and
complexities of each individual.
The DEEP is unique from other more primitive forms of
Diagnostics in many ways. First among these is that we
use more electrodes than standard EEG. Standard EEG
at best utilizes 28 electrodes -- none of which record
data from the primary language regions of the brain.
DEEP brain cap has 32 electrodes, 8 of which are specifically
tasked with recording data from the key language
regions of the brain -- Broca's and Wernicke's areas respectively. These regions handle the majority of our
understood and evoked language and yet remain largely ignored in traditional EEG recordings. We believe
that these regions must be evaluated directly in order to accurately explain how a child's individual
problems manifest in their development of language.
The DEEP Assessment objectively measures the correlation between brain function and
electrical activity of the neural tissue: at rest, through the circadian
rhythm and during specific tasks. It may measure dysfunction, mild deviations
from normal or definite abnormalities in the maturational process. Evoked
responses (ERP) use stimuli in the visual and auditory domains to show
objective links between perceptive-cognitive deficits and electrical
maturational or structural damage to the brain.
Evoked responses may
be altered by changes in the individual's psychological state,
underlining the importance of differentiating between focused attention
and non specific alertness. DEEP also offers an objective follow up
to the improvement in the functional connectivity achieved when the
right method is used in the treatment of a dysfunctional state.
Finally, we use the proprietary Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) database created by Dr. Frank Duffy, M.D., of Harvard Medical School and Children's Hospital Boston, comprising numerous normative
samples to compare to when performing diagnostics. This standardized database of brain activity has
been gathered over the last two decades and is still being updated today. These samples are
broken into 10 age groups, allowing us to know what
the average expected response to the stimuli we give will be.
We then superimpose your child's data over
that of the average and are able to tell with mathematical certainty where your child differs. This allows us
great accuracy in determining exactly which regions of the brain are affected and how these anomalies
affect the proper functioning of your child's brain. In addition, these results serve as a concrete framework
upon which to build a medically-based treatment protocol individually tailored to your child and the specific
needs of his or her brain.
Read more about our DEEP Assessment procedure.
Neuropsychology is the study of the relationship between brain function
and behavior. Neuropsychological evaluations are concerned with exploring
the behavioral expression of brain dysfunction. To fully understand
an individuals unique neuropsychological profile, the following
areas are assessed and integrated into a comprehensive analysis that
includes recommendations for intervention. These areas include attention
and concentration; memory; language; visual-spatial abilities; sensory-motor
abilities; higher cognitive abilities including intellectual and executive
functioning; and emotional factors.
Psychologists are trained in human behavior, normal development, learning,
and memory. They work with many kinds of mental disorders and different
types of therapy. They are trained to use IQ tests, personality tests,
and career tests to help children and young adults. They may provide
therapy to individuals, couples, families, and groups. They cannot prescribe
medicines in most states.
An educational psychologist is a PhD-level mental health expert who
specializes in assessment and consultation relating to educational issues,
and learning disabilities. Educational psychologists use a range of
assessment tools, including intelligence and academic achievement testing.
Cognitive therapy takes the approach that how you think affects how
you feel and behave. This therapy helps you recognize unhealthy ways
of thinking that keep you stuck. You learn to identify automatic negative
thoughts. You learn how to change your thoughts and this can lead to
changed behaviors. It can also improve self-esteem and confidence.
Behavioral therapy is very structured and goal oriented. It starts with
what you are doing now, then helps you change your behavior. Behavioral
therapists may use techniques such as:
- Exposure therapy or desensitization.
This teaches you to face your fears while practicing relaxation skills.
This may increase assertiveness or help resolve conflicts between
- Self-monitoring, or keeping a log of your
This may help identify which behaviors are causing problems.
Therapists are trained to treat all aspects of speech and language pathology
including: expressive and receptive language disorders, oral-motor weakness,
dysphagia (swallowing difficulties), articulation disorders, dysfluency
(stuttering), and voice disorders. The therapist addresses augmentative
communication as needed. Typically therapy is on a weekly basis (1-2
hours per day, 2-3 days per week).
The trained tutors work with children and young adults to assess their
educational level, and create an individualized program that will help
achieve the appropriate educational goals.
Therapists are trained to treat all areas of gross motor dysfunction
including: coordination issues, gait deviations, poor balance, developmental
delays, strength deficits, endurance problems, orthopedic issues and
sensory integration dysfunction. Typically therapy is on a weekly basis
(1-2 hours per day 2-3 times per week). The therapist offers an intensive
program (3 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 3 weeks). During all
sessions children have access to specialized equipment from Europe (the
Therasuit and the Universal Exercise Unit).
Therapists are trained to treat all aspects of fine motor dysfunction
including: activities of daily living (dressing, feeding, bathing, etc.),
handwriting problems, sensory integration dysfunction, strength deficits,
assistive technology needs and feeding. Typically therapy is on a weekly
basis (1-2 hours per day 2-3 times per week).
Family therapists view the family as a system. They work with the whole
family rather than just one person. The therapist helps family members
to openly express feelings and change negative family patterns.
Drawing, painting, or working with clay with an art therapist can help
you express things that you may not be able to put into words. Art therapists
work with children, teens, and adults, including people with disabilities.
Pharmacological Therapy (Medicines)
Medicines can help improve brain activity. They are prescribed by a
Psychiatrist or a Neurologist. We will work with you to carefully select
the right medicine. Medicines may be used alone, but most people find
that using medicine along with other kinds of therapy works best.
Biofeedback is a therapy in which you are trained to improve your health
by using information from your own body. You can learn to control many
body activities that most people usually don't think of as within their
control. Among these are: blood pressure, heart rate, muscle tension,
and many brain wave patterns.
Biofeedback is especially useful for treating "Type A" teens and adults for stress reduction.
As part of our overall practice we treat firefighters, police officers and other individuals in highly demanding and stressful occupations or life situations.